The aim of the Soviet invasion of September 17, 1939, was not only to take over a specific area, but also to permanently eliminate the leadership layer of the conquered lands. Mayors and former mayors, as well as other professional groups representing the Polish state or constituting local elites, found themselves under a direct threat.Read more... Reading time 6 min.
The “Polish Operation” of the NKVD in 1937–1938 was a genocide that resulted in the death of at least 111,091 innocent people. This event is no less important and no less worth commemorating than the Katyn massacre, or the Volhynia massacre.Read more... Reading time 12 min.
The dynamics of geopolitical processes, both in Europe and on a global scale, today forces Poles to take a new look at the definition of our raison d'état. Its constituent elements will remain: independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, state security, maintaining national identity, and connecting Poles in Poland with Polish emigration into a coherent and mutually understanding whole. If we, Poles, do not undertake such a debate today, others will certainly do so. The era of the Tehran-Yalta order is over.Read more... Reading time 23 min.
"Miracle on the Vistula" is a term commonly used to refer to the fighting near Warsaw, which took place in August 1920 during the Polish-Russian war. In these fights, Polish troops resisted the Bolshevik forces, which sought to continue their westward expansion in order to spread the communist revolution. In the history of Poland, there are only a few battles so important for the fate of our country and, simultaneously, for the entire world at the time.Read more... Reading time 33 min.
U.S. and German appeasement and weakness at the NATO summit are inviting Russian escalation of violence, which eventually might bring results that Russia sought at the beginning of the war. The Biden administration created a political and military framework in which Ukraine cannot win.Read more... Reading time 4 min.
In the context of the debate that has flared up in Poland after the publication of a much-needed report on war losses suffered as a result of German aggression and criminal occupation, it seems obvious that the time has come to start work on preparing estimates of losses as a result of Soviet actions.Read more... Reading time 6 min.
Penal camps have a centuries-old "tradition". Many of them were established in isolated and unhealthy places of the world, where it was not possible to encourage free emigrants to settle. These were places where labor was needed to build roads and fortifications, to work on plantations, fell trees and extract natural resources.Read more... Reading time 6 min.
It seems that the United States is working on a new security system that will be presented at the NATO summit in Vilnius and in the United States. It is worth for Poland to actively build diplomatic ties of cooperation within NATO on the North-South line. However, this requires cross-party politics and bringing all Poles together.Read more... Reading time 3 min.
2023 marks the 160th anniversary of the outbreak of the January Uprising. Despite the passage of years, the echoes of this uprising have not ceased in the public debate. An important and difficult question - "to fight (for the freedom of your country) or not to fight?" – thanks to him, it returns in Central Europe even today. The sense and significance of the act of the January insurgents cannot be understood without the historical context of the entire region of Central Europe, today's territory of Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania and Belarus.Read more...